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urine tests

Urine is produced by the kidneys. A complete urinalysis consists of visual examination, chemical examination, and microscopic examination, to detect and/or measure several substances in the urine, such as by-products of normal and abnormal metabolism, cells, cellular fragments, and bacteria.

Definition 

Urine FEME stands for full and microscopic examination of urine. It uses biochemical methods to analyze the urine specimen. 

 

The chemical testing allows us to detect presence of blood, protein, glucose, ketones, and other substances in the urine. Abnormalities in the levels of any of these substances can reveal a wide range of potential problems. For instance, if the urine contain glucose, it could indicate uncontrolled diabetes. 

 

The microscopic examination of urine is the final step of urine FEME. When the urine is placed under the microscope, we can examine for presence of bacteria, yeast, parasites crystals, and other indicators of illness or disease. The red and white blood cells can also be visualized under microscopic examination. 

 

Indications

Abdominal pain, back pain, presence of blood in urine, painful urination

 

Preparations

You do not need to fast prior to the test

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area. 

Definition

Urine microscopy is a microscopic examination of urine. When the urine is placed under the microscope, we can examine for presence of bacteria, yeast, parasites crystals, and other indicators of illness or disease. The red and white blood cells can also be visualized under microscopic examination. 

 

Preparations

Fasting is not required. 

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area. 

This is one of the test to evaluate your kidney function by using the urine collected over 24 hours.

Definition 

A urine drug test can help a doctor to detect potential substance abuse problems. The urine drug test usually screens for amphetamines, methamphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, methadone or opioids. Alcohol can be detected as well. The method used to detect this substance is via rapid chromatographic immunoassay.

 

A urine drug test usually requested by an employer when screening job applicants (pre-employment checkup), for periodic or random drug testing of employees, and when drug use is suspected based on symptoms or workplace accidents.

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area.

Definition 

Urine pregnancy test looks for a special hormone, called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This hormone is only produced in a pregnant woman’s body. In the beginning of pregnancy, the hCG production rate happens very quickly. Usually this test is indicated when a woman notices that she has miss a period. 

 

Indications

Signs and symptoms of pregnancy:

  • Swollen, painful breast
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  •  Nausea and Vomiting (morning sickness)
  • Bloated feeling in abdomen 

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area. 

Urine collected over 24 hours to check how much protein is being spilled into the urine, which can help detect disease or other problems.

Urine glucose is to test for the presence of glucose in your urine. Glucose is not normally detected in the urine of normal healthy individuals. Glucose is usually seen in the urine of patients with diabetes mellitus. Elevated levels of glucose (blood sugar) may indicate diabetes mellitus. Glucose levels should always be measured while fasting; you should have nothing to eat for a minimum of eight hours before the test.

Urine Protein test is to detect presence of protein in the urine. Protein is not normally detected in the urine of normal healthy individuals and its presence usually suggests a kidney disorder. Small amounts of protein may be present in normal individuals, in concentrated specimens or after a strenuous exercise.

Definition 

In this test, the urine is taken to grow and identify the bacteria that are causing the infection so that the doctor could pick the best medicine to treat your infection. This is because certain bacteria are killed by specific antibiotics. 

 

Indication

When you have pain in your abdomen, chills, fever, or a burning sensation when urinating, it could indicate urinary tract infection. 

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area. 

Definition

Albumin is a protein our body uses for tissue growth and repair. A urine microalbumin test is done to detect small levels of blood protein (albumin) in the urine. A microalbumin test is usually done to detect early signs of kidney damage. In cases of kidney damage, the proteins tend to leak out from the kidneys and exit the body through your urine. 

 

Kidney damage is a complication of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this test is commonly taken by diabetic patients to assess their kidney functions. Patients with underlying high blood pressure are recommended to take this test too. 

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area. 

Definition

Heavy metals are natural metallic elements, which are harmful to us. Heavy metal profile allows us to detect elevated level of these metals in the body. This test is frequently ordered for individual’s suffering from symptoms of heavy metal poisoning or has been exposed to heavy metals. 

 

Common heavy metals takenfor testing are lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, zinc and aluminium. 

 

How our body absorb the metals:

Aluminium (Al): Inhalation, ingestion, working in ammunition, welding and cosmetics industry. 

Arsenic (As): Ingesting insecticides, pesticides or herbicides, drinking. 

Cadmium (Cd): Inhalation, welding industry, plastic industry, ingestion

Lead (Pb): Manufacturing of lead-based paints, solder, batteries, ammunition and welding/cutting of lead-coated structure.

Mercury (Hg): Mining, producing or transporting mercury, consuming contaminated fish or water. 

Zinc (Zn): Inhalation, ingestion, working in welding industry

 

Procedure

You may collect the urine sample at any time of the day, unless the doctor or nurse tells you otherwise. Once given the urine bottle, wash your hands. Start to pee and collect a sample of “mid-stream” urine. 

 

A mid-stream urine means you don’t collect the first or last part of urine that comes out. This is because it may be contaminated with bacteria that stick around the skin of the tube that carries the urine out of the body (urethra), which will interfere with the results. Once done, place the urine bottle at the designated area. 

KKLIU 1643/2021

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